Title: Cairo: Memoir of a City Transformed by Ahdaf Soueif
Publisher: Pantheon Books, New York (2014)
The questions that are being settled on the streets of Egypt are of concern to everyone. The paramount one is this: can a people’s revolution that is determinedly democratic, grassroots, inclusive, and peaceable succeed?
Cairo erupted during eighteen days between January 25th and February 11th, 2011. It was one of the first in what became the string of global protests that were held in 2011 & early 2012. That chain included the Tunisian “Jasmine” Revolution; America’s Occupy Wall Street (the OCCUPY banner of which was taken up by groups in England, Germany and Ireland, among others); the 15-M Movement in Spain and the protests in Italy and Greece. Most of these movements continue barely acknowledged by the media. The common cause of the protesters: income inequality. In the West this was and is represented by the banking system and finance industry – the ubiquitous 1%. Government corruption are also being targeted. And while most of these protests began peacefully, few have ended so.
Ahdaf Soueif is perhaps best known for her novels In the Eye of the Sun and The Map of Love; and her marriage to the late author Ian Hamilton. She is also a journalist, translator, and political activist who calls both London and Cairo home. Her son, Omar Robert Hamilton, is a filmmaker and a founding member of the activist media collective Mosireen. Cairo: Memoir of a City Transformed expands on her earlier account of the 2011 Egyptian Revolution Cairo: My City, Our Revolution, published in 2012 by Bloomsbury UK. This new edition includes a final chapter entitled “Eighteen Days Were Never Enough”.
What happened during those original eighteen days? The Egyptian people, led by the Egyptian youth (Shabaab) , descended on Tahrir Square demanding that Mubarak step down and Democratic elections be held. The political factions – and they were many – formed a temporary truce in support of the greater good. The Egyptian Army stood with the protesters. At least for a time. Mubarak’s people sent wave after wave of attacks, sometimes covertly through saboteurs who infiltrated the Square. Many young people were injured or killed. Their leaders were imprisoned. Throughout this time, Tahrir Square was transformed. Much like Zuccotti Park in NYC, it became a campground, a festival and a political stage.
Both books seem to be based on the journals and notes Soueif kept as events were happening; she frequently refers to her determination to act as a witness But her writing is more polished, more novelistic, than a simple journal entry. Her words lack the immediacy of a true, first hand report. Ms. Soueif narrates in over-ripe prose; managing to capture all of the romance, exuberance and child-like euphoria of those early days of revolution. Every moment is saturated with portent and emotion. Her family members stride, godlike across the pages – often appearing and acting as a collective. The scenes where she describes them coming together take on the characteristics of the magical realism genre. As in the scene where they celebrate her nephew’s release from prison and the birth of his son (the newest member of this tightly knit family).
We swept and cleaned the house I’d refurbished in my mother’s orchard. We laid out tables and chairs and strung up colored lights and strings of Egyptian flags. We set up a barbecue, and all our family and friends and friends of friends came and brought lots of food. We played music and danced and carried Khaled in a satin-lined sieve into every room and into all the dark corners so he would know his wa;y and know there was nothing,ever, to be afraid of, and we sprinkled the seven seeds in his path so he would always have plenty, and we sang to him the old instructions to obey his mother and father and added that he must never ever obey SCAF or a government. My mother’s orchard was teaming and buzzing and radiating love and light. And just before midnight, we all drove to Tahrir – the biggest family home in the world. And despite the dark days, Tahrir was full of hope and joy, and there was music and song and a church choir and people all the time gathering around Alaa and talking talking talking about the future and what we need to do.*
This isn’t meant as a negative criticism – quite the opposite. Cairo is the antithesis of what we’ve come to expect from the political book. The novelistic quality – the over exuberance – of Soueif’s narrative voice is precisely what makes it so accessible and addictive. It balances the obvious care taken revising and re-editing the text. There is even a post-modern element – Soueif is very aware that the present in which these words are being read is different from her present. That her readers exist in an uncertain future.
And so we follow the author as she moves between Tahrir Square, the various homes and offices of her family and the news studios from which she sends out dispatches to contradict the “official” reports being released by the government. There is an emotional investment in what is happening – remember, these are her children and this is her city. Souef’s son, nieces and nephews, sisters and brothers, friends and neighbors all play a part. Her worry and pride is palpable, stirring the same in her readers. While her generation is involved, the 2011 Revolution is primarily led by the Shabaab. They are the front line. And there are times when the streets surrounding the Square were a war zone.
For those who only know Soueif as a novelist, Cairo is a vivid reminder of her roots in journalism. She possesses the ability to step back and recognize the larger implications of what is happening in her home country. And so she interrupts herself (in a chapter called, appropriately, “An Interruption”. Interjecting from 18 months in the future to report on the current state of the Revolution. The format is the same one she uses throughout the entire book. The narrative loosely organized into days and hours. But the exuberance is momentarily gone. The movement’s leaders, many of the same nieces as nephews who we stood in the Square with a few pages ago, are now being accused and arrested. Fissures are forming between the different political parties. The population of the city is growing weary of the interruptions to their lives. A lot has changed. Soueif acknowledges that even more time has passed for the reader. That even more changes of which she is unaware will occur. “You… are in a future unknown to me”. And of course she is right.
In the present we know that Mubarak was forced out, that general elections were held and Mohamed Morsi became Egypt’s first democratically elected president. In June of 2013 public protests were held calling for his resignation and in July he was forcibly removed by a military coup. Adly Mahmoud Mansour was appointed interim president. The military has in recent months begun a crackdown on leaders of the 2011 revolution and Morsi is facing charges of incitement of murder, violence and of espionage. A police station in Mansoura was bombed on December 24th and the government is declaring the Muslim Brotherhood responsible (despite the group’s denials). They’ve been labeled a terrorist organization in Egypt. The network that ran Mubarak’s security state, by many accounts, is back. Violence swells, breaks and recedes for a time, only to swell again. And readers outside of Egypt are left trying to sift the news for truth.
“This book is not a record of an event that’s over; it’s an attempt to welcome you into, to make you part of, an event that we’re still living. And there are two problems in the writing of it. One is that while the eighteen days are locked into the past, the revolution and the fight to hold on to it continue, and every day the landscape shifts. THe other is that you – my reader – are in a future unknown to me, and yet I want to tell a story that will ease the leap you need to make between where this book stops and where Egypt is as you read.”
For those interested in learning more, the New York Times publishes up to date news on events in Egypt here. You can follow Ahdaf Soueif on Twitter @asoueif and her son, Omar Robert Hamilton, @ORHamilton.
* To clarify: Khaled is the infant
Publisher: Pantheon Books, New York (2014)
ISBN: 978 0 307 90810 0